I know what you all are thinking right now, but no I am not talking about the actual guts and toes. Else, this is an article regarding Grand Unified Theory (GUT) and Theory of Everything (ToE), which are actually two visions leading to the same place of unifying all four (or five, if taken into account) fundamental forces of nature into one single force.
It all started when Isaac Newton discovered the first force of nature, Gravity in 1687 which explained for the first time, the connection between two bodies whether it is planets movement or simply a guy falling down on the ground. Before this, it was believed that planets revolve because they are being pushed by the winged humongous angels. Well, at least through his arrival, we were dragged out of this myth.
After him, for over two centuries we didn’t really do anything except experimenting with things like electricity, compass or a pulley. But then in 1865 came James Clerk Maxwell as a messiah in the boring lives of scientist and introduced his concept of electromagnetism which combined two incredible phenomenon, electricity and magnetism. Later, it became the second force of nature.
Then years passed, and in 1905, Einstein guided science towards the gateway of quantum physics which gave us the other two forces, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force. The strong nuclear force is involved at the atomic scale and is responsible for stabilizing the nucleus and also, as the name indicates it is the strongest among all the other forces. The weak nuclear force is also involved at the atomic scale but comes into action at the time of decay of particles and getting transformed into a new one. We see a huge similarity between the weak nuclear force and the Electromagnetic force, as it was found out that they both emit from the same strand of Electroweak force. Though, due to observation of the interaction of particles, it was seen that there is a requirement for additional interaction, yes I am heading towards the Higgs field, but I won’t be taking Higgs field into account in this article, as it would just make your understanding more complicated.
So now coming back, the strength of the forces is depended on the energy at which they are getting studied. And when energy is increased, the electroweak and strong nuclear force combine at a single energy point, though it is extremely high (10 to the 15th billion electron volts). Now, this intersection is what we call the Grand Unified Theory (GUT), where the three forces combine at a single point. We still have a long way to go in achieving that, but still who said we could not see dreams?
You would have noticed that I haven’t included gravity in the GUT, well it’s because we do not have an equation for quantum gravity, but if we imagine about ToE and hope that there are no more surprises for us in the way. We could say that gravity would also meet GUT at a single energy point which would be near to 10 to the 19th billion electron volts and it is quadrillion times higher than what Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been able to produce till now. But we need the Theory of Everything, one theory for all the phenomena, for making everything simpler. Still, the biggest question is, would the quest of science be finished after finding the ToE, well who knows?
I hope you understood the basic concept of the Theory of Everything, but still, there is a lot that I didn’t talk about. So in the next articles too, we are gonna talk about the forces itself. Keep visiting and make sure to keep the updates.Follow us on social media: